March 24, 2022

THIS WEEK: Eat healthy--but not always. Get fast, stay fast. Training help from Dathan Ritzenhein. Does Daylight Savings Time affect runners? How to build a training week for optimal recovery. Lower your risk of respiratory illness. Super shoes and average runners. What happens when you run to work? More.

Eat healthy. Food first. But not always

No doubt you’ve heard the saying: Don’t let the perfect be enemy of the good. It can apply to runners and our habits. Here veteran endurance nutrition researcher Ron Maughan and colleagues list six reasons or circumstances that justify deviating from the usually smart “food first” approach. Good points all around. It’s also true that eating lots of veggies is generally recommended … unless it’s limiting your carb and calorie intake. In which case you could be running yourself down rather than building up. Be careful what you eat. But not too careful. More at Outside Online. 

Get fast, and stay fast

There’s good research to show that short fast runs--anything from post-workout “strides” to 20- to 30-second hill sprints--can build running economy and endurance. Here’s a roundup of several studies in the field. I’ll only add this: Remember that more isn’t better. Small is beautiful. More at Trail Runner.

What runners can learn from Dathan Ritzenhein

Two years ago there was no On Athletic Club, sponsored by the Swiss shoe company, On. And most of us had never heard of Alicia Monson, Olli Hoare, Joe Klecker, or Geordie Beamish. Now these and other On AC athletes, coached by former U.S. great Dathan Ritzenhein, are winning races and recording fast times. How? Ritzenhein’s not claiming any secrets. Just a strong belief in consistency and a favorite fartlek workout. More at Outside Online.

Is Daylight Savings Time good for runners?

The national press has been full of stories about a bill in Congress that would make Daylight Savings Time permanent. That is, there would be no “turning back” our clocks in the fall. However, sleep and chronobiology experts argue that this would be bad for our health. What about our running? Strava reports that nearly 50 percent of runners do their workouts in the mornings, which would be very dark in winter. Also, a study of marathon performances in Nov and April revealed that finish times were worse in April just after we turned our clocks forward. More at Chronobiology International.

How to organize your training week for optimal recovery

Training theory and systems tend to seesaw a bit, depending on who’s hot and who’s not. These days we’re in a period that emphasizes recovery. You often hear statements like “The recovery is when the magic happens.” Here, a French endurance expert explains how to build a recovery-based training program like Swedish speed skater Nils van der Poel, the sensation of the recent Winter Olympics. He often takes the whole weekend off. More at Alan Couzens.

The risks of respiratory illness are “modifiable”

Runners and other endurance athletes may be prone to respiratory illness (colds, etc), and of course they always strike at the worst time--when you’re increasing training or peaking for a big event. An IOC scientific subcommittee looked into these illnesses, concluding that they are often caused by “increased training monotony, endurance training programmes, lack of tapering, training during winter or at altitude, international travel and vitamin D deficits.” What to do? Look into “Modifiable training and environmental risk factors” and “consider assessing and treating specific nutritional deficiencies such as Vitamin D.” More at Brit J of Sports Medicine.

Do midpackers run faster in super shoes?

Here a study team compared various running and biomechanical variables among non elites who ran in either a traditional Nike Pegasus shoe or the Nike Next% super shoe with a carbon plate and super foam. The Next shoe pushed runners slightly more to a forefoot strike, gave them a longer stride, and increased their ground-reaction force, but didn’t change leg stiffness. Conclusion: The super shoes “were found to improve running performance in non-elite runners.” This is a bit strange because the paper’s abstract didn’t report any performance results. More at Int J of Exercise Science.  

The kid-neys are okay

Researchers have long wondered about kidney (renal) function after marathon running though it hasn’t been studied nearly as much as the heart and the skeletal muscles. Here the study group was surprised that, “Contrary to our expectations, the use of elliptical machines for marathon recovery delays renal function recovery.” So they recommend light-intensity continuous running from 48 h after finishing the marathon.” Or you can just rest. You deserve it. More at Frontiers in Physiology.

Hard-training triathletes seem to avoid injury

You have to wonder about studies like this one that show the most serious, hard-training athletes have the fewest injuries. Does that mean more training reduces injury incidence? Seems unlikely. Or that those who don’t get injured can train harder? Possibly. Here, in a systematic review of triathlete injuries, researchers found that overuse injuries were more frequent than “acute” injuries (likely from accidents). Knee injuries were the number one issue, and running and cycling caused the most injuries. Conclusion: “Long distance triathletes may have a lower incidence” of injuries. More at J of Human Kinetics.

The benefits and hassles of “running with a bag”

It’s hard not to appreciate a first-ever running study. This is one, and I really love it. A young British researcher with a PhD in “human geography” decided to investigate that hardy breed of runners generally known as “run commuters.” They run to and/or from work, often with a rucksack or backpack to carry clothes and other essentials. These are admirable folks. Their practice keeps them in shape while reducing pollution. Unfortunately it’s not inherently pleasurable since bags or packs are “often disruptive and constricting, altering the ordinary eurythmia of bodily movements, breaths, heart rates, and form.” As a result, “bodily capacities, bag choice, packing skills and speed changes led to rhythmic retuning” by the run commuters. Still, they stuck to their practice! But, c’mon designers, can’t you produce a better bag? More at Social & Cultural Geography.

SHORT STUFF you won’t want to miss

> With menthol mouth wash vs cold water or placebo, “participants produced higher relative power for longer durations.”

> Flat feet, pigeon toes, bowed legs not as bad as you might have thought.

> Weird science: Probiotic from Olympic female weightlifting gold medalist improves exercise performance and increases weight loss in mice.

GREAT QUOTES make great training partners 

“By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail.”--Benjamin Franklin

That’s it for now. Thanks for reading. Stay well, and see you next week. Amby

April 20, 2021

THIS WEEK: Stay fast for decades. Best hydration strategies. Can shoes prevent injuries? Training with AI. Exercise and cognitive decline. No more ice baths! Healthiest grains and meats. More.

How to stay fast through the years … and decades

First, get there when you are young. Then hold onto your speed with appropriate strength training, plyometrics, and injury-resistance exercises. It’s all here in an excellent overview from Alex Hutchinson at Outside. Here’s my own favorite: Do some modest, quick, but relaxed downhill strides on a smooth surface. More from the original paper from J of Aging & Physical Activity.

The best hydration advice from the biggest expert in the field

Larry Armstrong has been a leading researcher in endurance hydration/heat issues for four decades (as well as a committed runner himself). Recently he pulled together his best strategies and tips in a new journal paper. Here’s a concise, clear summary from Podium Runner.

5 a day keeps the Grim Reaper away

Nutrition researchers from Harvard looked at fruit and veggie consumption and mortality in more than 100,000 subjects. The lowest risk was linked with 2 servings of fruit and 3 of vegetables per day. More was not better. Potatoes, corn, peas, and fruit juices do not count. Five servings a day vs 2 lowered  mortality by 12 percent, with the biggest impact on respiratory diseases (down 35 percent). More at Circulation.

The ultimate running advice

If it works for you, YES! Cheesy, inspirational quotes, you bet! (See end of newsletter). Post-run selfies online or on the fridge, absolutely! Books or tunes on tape, rock ’em! Wearing yesterday’s socks, save the planet! Walk the first minute, perfectamundo! Go slower, hell yes! Visualize yourself breaking the tape, someone’s gotta do it! Join a real-virtual-imaginary group, people power! Talk to yourself, hey no one’s listening! Inspired by Farah Miller’s great “How to Start Liking Running” article at the NYT.

Should you train with artificial intelligence? 

Here comes the newest training system, full of algorithms, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and similar buzz words. Before long, someone will be touting themselves as the “Amazon” of training programs, or maybe the “Netflix.” Me? I think I’ll claim to be the  “Bitcoin” coach. According to a long but mostly incomprehensible article at Outside, a group called TrainerRoad has the inside lane for now. They’ve started in cycling, but such outfits always include running before long. I give them credit for this: It seems their Forum is free to all, which I didn’t expect, and they’re publishing lots of public blogs. So take a look. Or just follow the old-school, no-intelligence approach: Run 10 x 400 hard, then puke. It never fails. More at

Shoes that prevent injuries … it’s complicated

A group of Dutch researchers has spent years trying to determine the effect of different shoe types on injury risk. They’ve shown that motion control shoes are probably a good choice for those with pronated feet. And also that highly cushioned shoes tend to reduce injury risk (by about 50 percent), but only in lighter runners--an unexpected finding. In their latest report of 800+ runners randomized to two shoes that differed only in cushioning (one “soft,” one “hard”), the Dutch found no difference in peak impact force. That is, cushioned shoes didn’t provide more cushioning than hard shoes. While this can be a bit difficult to fathom, it’s consistent with similar studies about soft and hard ground surfaces, ie, that a soft surface like grass doesn’t reduce impact vs asphalt. The team is now hypothesizing that cushioned shoes may reduce injuries by delaying the time from initial impact to peak impact. More at Euro J of Sports Science.

Does exercise prevent cognitive decline?

We’d all like to believe so. And it would seem to make sense: All that increased heart stroke volume and flexible arteries sound like they should deliver more blood to the brain, and that extra oxygenation has to be good, right? Plus, some studies have delivered positive results. But apparently, we haven’t hit the finish line yet. Here, in a systematic review with lots of RCTs (in other words, a high-quality paper), the researchers find little support “that physical exercise is as potent as previously proposed” for the brain. More at Sports Medicine.

But to avoid depression in later life, yes, get those legs moving

Maybe exercise doesn’t do much for brain volume, but it definitely makes most people feel a lot better, and avoid depression--a major global health problem. Here’s another systematic review. It concludes, “Exericse brings mental health benefits.” Whew! Now I feel bettr. More at Molecular Biology Reports.

Brrrr no longer. Ice-water baths decrease the training effect

If you’ve been running for a few years, you’ll remember the hullabaloo around Paula Radcliffe’s ice-water recovery baths during the period when she ran a 2:15 marathon. For a while, such baths were the only way to show your dedication and toughness. More recent research, such as that linked here, suggests that regular cold/ice-water baths post workout may actually decrease “physiological adaptations to exercise training.” And that’s not good. More at Frontiers in Sports & Active Living.

All about lactate threshold and vo2 max in training

Here’s a medium dive into two of the most popular measures of training intensity: lactate threshold and vo2 max. In other words, basically: tempo training and speed work. The author is Spanish, where they pay close attention to these things. I like his thinking that you can do appropriate lactate threshold training every week, but maybe save vo2 max days for once every two weeks. More at Training Peaks.

Foods that fight chronic inflammation

No mere mortal (like me or you) can understand the number and effect of the trillions of bacteria in our microbiome, and how they interact with our diet, but a Dutch research group recently took a deep dive. They believe their results are “robust,” ie, worth paying attention to. The researchers compared diet and microbiome bacteria between apparently healthy controls and other adults with known inflammation such as Crohn’s disease, colitis, and irritable bowel syndrome. Those with inflammation problems consumed more meat, fast food, sugar, soft drinks, and hard alcohol. Their low-fiber intake made things worse. The healthy controls ate more plant proteins, nuts, oily fish, fruits, vegetables, coffee, tea, and red wine. You should too. More at  Brit Medical Journal.

Eliud Kipchoge wins again, now trains with glucose monitor

After a rare (for him) loss last fall in the London Marathon, Eliud Kipchoge returned to form Sunday morning in a small Dutch marathon, winning in 2:04:30. He’s now training with an external glucose monitor made by major marathon sponsor, Abbott. It’s supposed to help him decide when to take drinks and gels, etc. Basically, the LibreSense is a tool for diabetics, which some runners are. More at Runner’s World UK, including Kipchoge video.

Exercise protects against the most serious Covid outcomes

The NY Times reported on a report with strong evidence that regular exercisers have a significantly lower risk of serious outcomes from Covid than non exercisers. The research, with more than 48,000 subjects from the big Kaiser Permanente medical-health system, showed that the inactive had hospitalization and death outcomes 2.26 times and 2.49 times greater than those hitting 150 minutes of exercise a week. Other than getting vaccinated, “I think regular exercise is the most important thing they can do to lessen their risk. And doing regular exercise will likely be protective against any new variants, or the next new virus out there,” Dr. Robert Sallis told the Times. More at Brit J of Sports Medicine.

What are the healthiest grains and meats?

Studies have shown that eating whole grains is generally associated with healthy weight and BMI when refined grains are not. But why? Here, researchers did a systematic review and found that whole-grain consumption “significantly impacts [lowers] subjective appetite,” which would do the trick. In another report on more than 100,000 subjects, unprocessed meats and poultry had no impact on mortality. However: 

“Higher intake of processed meat was associated with higher risk of total mortality” by 50 percent. More at American J of Clinical Nutrition.


> RCTs show aerobic exercise decreases waist circumference and blood glucose in middle-aged women

> Systematic review: Few cases of Covid spread outdoors

> Super foam may do more for super shoes (Nike, etc) than carbon fiber

> Essential nonrunning stuff for runners. Drying racks--yes!

GREAT QUOTES make great training partners

“We don’t stop exercising because we get old. We get old because we stop exercising.”--Ken Cooper

April 13

TOPICS: Train more precisely and smarter. Positive affirmations that work. Plan easy days “pro-actively.” Do women runners recover faster than men? Carbohydrate loading--the full story. Plank variations. Build foot muscle to prevent injuries. More.

Train more precisely and smarter
Many runners have gotten the message that they should train with an 80/20 system: 80 percent easy runs (in Zone 1), 20 percent harder. And that the harder runs should be “polarized,” ie, more really fast (Zone 3) than tempo pace (Zone 2). But when exercise scientist and endurance coach Shawn Bearden dug into the primary research studies, he extracted a subtly different story. If you consider the way we actually run (by miles or by minutes), the breakdown shifts even further toward modest-pace running, and is pyramidal not polarized. Think 90-6-4. More at Science of Ultra.

Positive affirmations work best in the second person
That means, simply enough, you should say, “You can do it,” not “I can do it.” Use the second person (“You”) not the first person (“I”). This study has been around for a couple of years, but I stumbled across it recently, and continue to find it utterly fascinating. In a randomized, controlled trial, investigators found that grammar makes a difference. No one can be sure why. Maybe because “you” is a little more distant and less pressured than “I.” Maybe because your first, most powerful affirmations came from parents and coaches who used the “You can do it” form. More at J of Sports Science.

Best elliptical training tips for runners
There’s a fairly wide range of elliptical training devices out there these days, and of course they carry different names to try to set themselves apart. In my experience, you have to try a few to find which you like best. Ellipticals have a lot to offer runners, particularly in reducing impact and working on cadence (stride rate). This article describes many of the benefits, particularly the all-important “Don’t lean on the machine to support your weight.” You run straight and tall, you should elliptical straight and tall. More at Best Play Gear. 

There’s more than one way to plank
And the more ways you plank, the better. One of the basic precepts of exercise training goes something like this: A little variation is good for you. It stresses different muscle groups, leading to fitness enhancement, not ho-hum homeostasis. In other words, run slow sometimes, faster at other times. And do a variety of planks. Here’s how from Canadian Running.

PLAN your training, don’t just re-act to it
Sure, you can be the spontaneous, emotional type: When your body and mind feel good on a given day, go for it! Hammer that workout! But there’s a smarter way: Plan the days when you will go hard, and especially the recovery days. Many believe “Recovery is when the magic happens.” Training expert Stephen Seiler says: Be pro-active, not re-active, in your approach to training. More at

Shalane Flanagan challenges you to set an audacious goal
Nice word, that one--audacious. And Flanagan has certainly achieved some noteworthy goals herself. Here she says “To chase the dream is to live,” and “to feel more alive.” She outlines the process too: “Stress + Rest = Growth.” The only thing strange is that this blog appears on a site that apparently wants to do a personalized blood test for you, claiming it will help you plan your fitness program. More at Inside Tracker.

Speaking of audacious women--Marika Yugeta! Yuko Gordon!
Japanese runner Marika Yugeta, 62, ran her third amazing marathon of the year. This one was a 2:52:01, beating her own world record for the 60-64 age group. Yuko Gordon ran in the 1984 Olympic Marathon. Now 70, the British citizen may have set a new world record with her recent 3:29:01. In case you’re interested, the updated, 2020 Age-Graded Calculator gives Gordon a score of 96.31 and Yugeta an out-of-this-universe 103.29. I think that’s the highest ever except for Harriet Thompson’s 105.76 when she ran 7:24 at age 94.

If you can’t train at altitude, train in the heat
No one actually likes running in hot weather, but it does have its benefits, so maybe it’s time for an attitude adjustment. Look at it this way: Heat running can make you faster, even as it forces you to go slower. This meta analysis of 28 studies concluded that training in the heat could have “at least a small and up to a moderate-large effect” on your vo2 max in the heat. More at Sports Medicine.

When sitting a lot, mix in some sprints
By now, everyone should have gotten the message that prolonged sitting is unhealthy. This kind of sitting is sometimes called “screen time,” because that’s what we’re doing--watching the TV at home, a computer screen at work, or our mobile device … all the time. Bad, bad, bad. Which raises the question: How often do we have to get off our butt and do something else to counteract all the sitting? This little study suggests: Go hard for 4 seconds five times an hour. Just stand up and do 4 seconds of fast running in place with high knee lifts. This will be enough to “significantly lower the next day's postprandial plasma triglyceride response and increase fat oxidation.” More at Med & Sci in Sports & Exercise.

Women endurance athletes may recover more quickly than men
Until recently, exercise scientists mostly studied male college subjects easy to find in P.E. classes. That’s changing now, but we have a lot of catching up to do. And a lot of questions to answer. For example, do women endurance athletes recover differently than men. Some early results are indicating “Yes,” they recover better. In this report, women had “a greater ability to recover metabolically” than men after high-intensity training, and suffered less power loss between intervals. Another study looked at recovery after a hilly 20K road race. Where men suffered a 42% loss of max knee strength post-race, the women decreased by 28%. Of course the men were stronger at the beginning, but their greater losses made the two sexes virtually equal at the end. An important note for everyone: Even though your delayed muscle soreness dissipates after several days, your “functional muscle recovery” takes longer. More at Frontiers in Physiology.

Carbohydrates--here, there, and everywhere
It appears that next fall will bring a marathon season like no other, with major global and regional races every weekend, since all this spring’s marathons have moved to fall. Which of course means it’s time to think about carbohydrate loading. Runner’s World has an excellent overview, in part because it mentions the work of Ben Rapoport. He did a really deep scientific dive into carb-loading a decade ago. And after your 26-miler? It seems, based on a 15K study, you’ll recover just as well with more carbs as you would with carbs + protein. More at Nutrients.

Build more foot muscle for fewer injuries
Everywhere I look, I seem to find articles about strengthening the intrinsic foot muscles. I seem incapable of even the most basic of these exercises, but I’ll keep at it, because runners who do them may have a 2.4 times lower rate of injury. Here’s advice from an outfit called Recover Athletics. And here’s an infographic from YLM Sports Science.

Runners as blood donors … even organ donors
Many of us are fortunate enough to enjoy excellent health. That makes us attractive donors. I won’t claim to be a standout in this arena, because I’m not. But I do have a 70+ runner friend who donated a kidney to his wife, and still beats me at the races. Strange that these two important articles popped up the same week. Think about it. Runners as blood donors at Fleet Feet. Runners as organ donors at Runner’s World.
Boston Red Sox will wear Boston Marathon themed uniforms
Gear you wear keeps going higher tech
Running apparel doesn’t have to be expensive

April 6, 2021

THIS WEEK: Chili peppers for endurance. Marathons improve knee health. “Shock” your body faster. Guys--Sex lowers leg strength. Plantar fasciitis guidelines. More.

Holy jalapeno! Chili peppers can boost endurance

In this systematic review, researchers looked at 22 studies (14 with animals, 8 with human subjects) that investigated the potential effects of capsaicinoid or capsinoid compounds on endurance or resistance performance. Conclusion: “The available scientific literature appears to suggest that these compounds could be considered an effective nutritional strategy to improve exercise performance.” More at Int J of Sports Physiology & Performance. 

You didn’t expect this: Marathon running improves knee health

This study appears to be a year old, but somehow I missed it earlier. It’s noteworthy because we don’t often see a report on how marathon running can improve knee health. That’s what happened here, among a group of 44 first-time marathoners in the 2017 London Marathon. Doctors looked specifically at the “bone marrow and articular cartilage” of the runners. Conclusion: “The knees of novice runners achieved sustained improvement for at least 6 months post marathon.” More at Skeletal Radiology.

“Shock” your body to run faster

Last week we talked about the dangers of too much High Intensity Training. However, shorter bursts or “shocks” can be productive. In this study with well-trained cyclists, the subjects completed 5 HIT workouts (12 x 30 seconds hard) in a week. This dramatically increased their vo2 max and power output vs other cyclists who did much longer intervals. The researchers concluded that short intervals “may induce superior changes in indicators of endurance performance.” After a week, return to your normal training. More at Int J of Sports Physiology & Performance.

Rules of the road--good etiquette for runners

I’m generally a well-mannered guy, so of course I believe in good running etiquette, of which there are 10 nice suggestions linked below. Others: A couple of years ago, I decided I should stop saying, “Looking good” to women runners on the road. I switched to “Looking strong.” Also, at races, LINE UP WHERE YOU DAMN WELL BELONG. Sorry, lost my manners there. More at Canadian Running. 

Sorry guys: Sex before exercise lowers leg-force production

But I bet the researchers had an easy time recruiting subjects. Fifty guys agreed to do leg squats before and after sex. Results: “Sexual intercourse within 24 hours before exercise has a detrimental effect on lower extremity muscle force.” More at Postgrad Medical Journal. But don’t despair. Most previous studies of this kind have reached the opposite conclusion.

One hundred marathons in 100 days, with heavy heel strike

The story here: This runner did the opposite of everything you’ve been hearing since Born To Run was published. He didn’t run with a forefoot or midfoot strike, but with a very heavy heel-strike angle of 29.5 degrees. Yet he produced forces “remarkably lower” than a control group. He did this with a very high “duty factor” (time on the ground), which I mentioned in a different item last week (“Run like Groucho”). He ran slow, sure, with an average daily marathon completion time of about 4:30. But he got the job done, and no injuries! More at J of Sport & Health Science.

Fighting shin splints: old news, but a hot new medium

I’m chuckling over this one, and also trying to appreciate it. One of the oldest running-injury tricks in the books has made it big as aTikTok “hack,” bringing enlightenment to the apparent millions who are TikTok fans. I won’t tell you what it is, but I’ll give you  a hint: I might make a TikTok video about the frozen peas in my fridge. More at TikTok/@whatrunsyou.

45 best ideas for breakfast

This is an outrage. We all know there is only one best breakfast, and here it is: plain nonfat Greek yogurt, blueberries, oatmeal, walnuts, unsweetened coconut flakes, and just a touch of either honey or maple syrup. There, I’m glad that is settled. Placing second, by a considerable distance, is number 30 from this list. More at Self.

How to recover from plantar fascia pain

It’s a common runner injury, a literal shooting pain in the foot (especially in the morning, getting out of bed), and not easy to recover from. But here’s an excellent guide based on a systematic review of evidence. Start with taping, stretching, and a review of your footwear. Move on to shockwave therapy and custom orthotics. More at Brit J of Sports Medicine.

If you feel like running 8000 miles this year, do like David

Last year, 61-year old David Simon logged 8000 running miles, according to his Strava stats. Once a 3:20 marathoner, he now runs slow and comfy, talking on the phone or listening to podcasts. He fuels his morning efforts with a caffeine-laced energy drink, consumes 4000 to 5000 calories a day, including protein bars and whole-grain breads (but not meat), and regrets the one time he had knee surgery. (And if you don’t feel like running 8000 miles this year, that’s okay too.) More at Runner’s World.

Walking an ultra has a surprising impact, while fast ultras take big training

Researchers measured the physiological response of 43 thirty-somethings who walked 100K in 24 hours. That’s not fast--it amounts to less than 3 miles per hour--but the results were surprising. Scientists noted that, “Although the intensity level demanded from our participants was low” compared to marathon studies, “the alteration of tested parameters was similar.” In other words, long-slow walking is serious exercise. More at Frontiers in Physiology. On the other hand, if you want to excel at fast 100K running, you’d better log a lot of weekly training mileage. More at Clinical Nutrition ESPEN.

I bet he was good at figuring out his marathon splits

I happen to be a fan of mathematicians way smarter than I am. On an early-1990s visit to Cambridge University, we cajoled my math-centric son to enter the physics building, where he saw Stephen Hawking in the hallway. Which brings us to Alan Turing, famous for code-breaking (“The Imitation Game” movie) and much more. Less well-known: He was a talented distance runner with a marathon best of 2:46:03 in the late 1940s. More at


> Four days of blueberry consumption lowers runners’ blood lactate but doesn’t improve performance

> Cinnamon has “beneficial effects” on metabolic conditions

> For Achilles tendinitis, straight-leg and bent-knee stretches are both good

> Mariko Yugeta ran a 2:52 marathon in January at age 62