December 14, 2023

[RLRH is taking a 2 week break for the end-of-year season. It will next be published on January 4, 2024. Wishing you and yours great Holiday health. Amby]

A Surprising (And Good) Twist On Marathon Training Plans

I’m always on the lookout for marathon training programs that are distinctly different from others. Given the hundreds of marathon programs on the Internet, you’d think it easy to find differences.

But it’s not. Most programs look remarkably similar because there’s considerable agreement on what’s included in a good marathon program. Things like: 1) 12 to 20 weeks of preparation; 2) a gradual, progressive increase in weekly mileage, with a particular focus on weekend long runs; 3) a modest number of tempo runs at marathon or half-marathon pace; 4) a cutback week (decreased mileage) every 4 weeks or so; and 5) a 2-3 week taper before the big event.

All these training programs are basically sound, and should lead to good results. That’s great for the runners who follow them. But where’s the creative variety?

Last week I stumbled upon a marathon program with just enough of a plot twist to grab my attention. The author, Matt Fitzgerald, is a highly regarded coach, running expert, and book author. 

Here’s what I found different (and liked a lot). Fitzgerald inserts a cutback week every third week vs every fourth. That means you get more easy weeks as you build towards the high mileages required for the marathon. 

Fitzgerald calls his plan “Foolproof.” I’d stop short of that. I’d call it “Smart.” More at Stack.

Generation Gap: How Should A Former Champ Coach His Teen Daughter?

Maybe not at all. At least that seems to be working well for Dathan Ritzenhein and his daughter, Addy. 

In his high school days as a scrawny, seemingly invincible kid from Rockford, Michigan, Dathan Ritzenhein won the FootLocker Cross-Country Championships as a junior and senior. A couple of weeks ago, his daughter, Addison, won the Nike Cross-Country Nationals as a sophomore.

I don’t think there has ever been a father-daughter team quite like this one before. So I listened carefully to a Dyestat interview with the two Ritzenheins. What’s their secret?

The good news: They don’t seem the least concerned with secrets. Dathan believes that the coaches at Addy’s high school are doing an excellent job, and he doesn’t interfere or micromanage his daughter’s running. In fact, he says, “I don’t really know what she’s doing until after she does it.”

Okay, he does get her free shoes from On, the shoe company that employs him to coach its elite international running team in Boulder. 

Addy has only been running seriously for a couple of years. Before that, she focused on gymnastics with a little swimming and volleyball. She seems drawn to cross-country primarily because she likes the social connections with her teammates. “I would say the flexibility from gymnastics has helped me, and just being part of a team. I like the teamwork.”

Addy’s mother, Kaelin, was also an elite runner in high school (same town as Dathan) and college (she and Dathan both attended the University of Colorado.) But neither parent has pushed Addy to running. They let her discover it on her own after exploring other sports. 

This reminds me of Shalane Flanagan’s path. She had two elite runners as parents. But she mainly played soccer until midway through her high-school career. Then she switched to running, and absolutely blossomed. She made several Olympic teams and won a New York City Marathon. 

The kids are alright. Let them play their games when they are young. They have plenty of time in high school and beyond to become serious runners. More available at a podcast from Dyestat.

Breaking Barriers: Motherhood And The Marathon Journey

The members of the first U.S. female Olympic Marathon team in 1984 were all on the young side, and childless--Joan Benoit, Julie Brown, and Julie Isphording. My, how things have changed.

We don’t yet know who will be going to Paris next summer, but there’s plenty of competition among those in their mid-30s (and beyond) who also have a thriving brood. I thought Keira D’Amato was the clear leader of that pack with her 39 years, and two children. Along with a marathon best of 2:19:12

But then Sara Vaughn hit the Chicago Marathon finish line two months ago in 2:23:24. She’s 37, with four children. Don’t look back, Keira. You’ve got marathon-mother competition.

Plenty of it. Just last month, Kellyn Taylor and Molly Huddle were featured in a NY Times story on breastfeeding. A couple of days later, they charged to the front of the NYC Marathon lead pack for half the race before finishing in 2:29 and 2:32. Taylor has so many children, both biological and fostered, that I can’t keep up with the total.

All this is prelude to a new Alex Hutchinson “Sweat Science” column on women and their return to fitness and competition after childbirth. The rule: There is no rule. Every postpartum woman runner has to listen to her body, and make her own best decisions. As Hutchinson writes: “Every return from pregnancy is different, and there’s no default timeline.”

Also: There are no limits. Every month, women like D’Amato, Vaughn, Taylor, Huddle, and many more are proving that women can run as fast, if not faster, after childbirth as before. Here’s a key study along those lines. 

I had barely finished typing these lines when I learned about Carter Norbo, who just won a Virginia marathon in 2:38:14 less than 4 months after giving birth to twins. 

Of course, many more new mothers return to running without setting records. They simply improve their personal health/fitness, and likely that of their newborns as well. As Hutchinson notes: We should “see all the postpartum athletes around us, recognize the challenges they’re encountering, and celebrate their achievements.” More at Outside Online.

SHORT STUFF You Don’t Want To Miss

>>> No finish line in sight: Super shoes aren’t going away in 2024. There will be more than ever.

HERE’S WHAT ELSE you would have received this week if you were a subscriber to the complete, full-text “Run Long, Run Healthy.” (Subscription Link Here.)

# Two simple words--”Hop” and “Stick”--that could fix your stride

# How to unleash running’s fat-burning potential

# Treadmill benefits, and Buyer’s Guide

# Ketones make a comeback as a post-exercise fuel

# New running gear so amazing you won’t even believe it

# Who was the top runner of 2023?

# Everything you need to know about vo2 max

# 14 new nutrition products for runners

# An inspirational quote from Sir Edmund Hilary, first to the top of Mount Everest

Click here for info about subscribing to the full-text RLRH for just $4/month--20% off!

And remember: “I spend HOURS searching the Internet for the best, most authoritative new running articles, so you can review them in MINUTES.”

That’s all for this week. Thanks for reading. See you again in the New Year on January 4, 2024. Amby

December 7, 2023

Running Is 15X Better Than Walking VS Stomach Fat, Heart Attacks

All aerobic exercise is good exercise, including modest walking--the world’s favorite fitness activity. But it’s also true that vigorous exercise is distinct from moderate exercise, and appears to have strong independent benefits.

For example, this prospective cohort study looked at more than 70,000 individuals in the British Biobank database to distinguish low/moderate exercisers from those who did more vigorous exercise. The primary outcome was any change in the well-established relationship between stomach fat and heart attacks (fatal and non-fatal).

And the differences were dramatic. Basically, every minute of vigorous exercise was equivalent to 15 minutes of moderate exercise. It took only 30 to 35 minutes/week of vigorous exercise “to offset the association between abdominal obesity and incident cardiovascular disease.” Whereas you’d have to walk about 500 minutes to achieve the same results.

Important note: Almost any running, even quite slow, reaches the scientific definition of vigorous exercise, usually pegged at 6+ METS/hour. Some other equivalents: shoveling, soccer, jumping rope, and carrying heavy loads.

Casual walking racks up about 4 METS/hour, and is thus moderate exercise. More at British J of Sports Medicine with free, full text.

Pre Race Sex? No Problem--It Won’t Hurt Your Performance

Research (and speculation) about the effect of sexual relations on subsequent athletic performance has been going on for a long time, and isn’t likely to stop soon. The subject is too juicy for authors and publications to resist, so it returns with some regularity.

The study reported here is a year old, but seems to have been in the news a bit lately. It represents a meta-analysis and systematic review of how intercourse or masturbation affect performance. 

The first thing to know is that no one has ever studied actual race or time-trial performance--the measures most interesting to runners. Rather researchers have used “various physical fitness tests” after sex. These included aerobic capacity, pushups, jump height, and the like. 

Also, 99% of subjects were male. It’s glaringly obvious that we’re missing half the world here. 

Anyway, “Performance in several physical fitness measures was unaltered in young men after sexual activity that occurred in the previous 30 min to 24 h.” In other words, the researchers uncovered neither a positive or negative result. Relax, suit yourself. More at Nature with free full text.

Lauren Fleshman Running Book Wins Big Award (Plus $$$)

A running book, Lauren Fleshman’s Good For A Girl, has become the first book about running to win the prestigious William Hill Sports Book of the Year Award in Great Britain. It’s also the first book written by a woman about women in sports to win the 35-year-old prize, including its payment of .$38,000. (Laura Hildendbrand won for Seabiscuit, but the Biscuit was a stallion.)

Fleshman, a former track star at Stanford and beyond, wrote the book herself without a co-author (ghost writer). It mixes candid memoir with fiery criticism of the sport. It’s also her first book.

In it, Fleshman recalls the mixed messages she received from family and peers, and the male domination of coaching and athletic governance. She rails particularly against male coaches fixated on pressuring women runners to change their body composition for supposed faster performances. 

The William Hill judges lauded Fleshman’s books for its “heartfelt narrative” and “compelling writing.” On instagram, she wrote: “My greatest hope is that by the time Zadie [her daughter] reads this book, the topics have become so irrelevant that she asks herself, ‘How the hell did this book win Sports Book of the Year?’ ” 

I concur with this selection. I found Good For A Girl the best and most important running book of the year. More at Athletics Weekly.

Apologies and a correction: There seem to be lots of Univ of Florida graduates among RLRH readers. They were quick to point out my mistake in writing that NCAA cross country champ Parker Valby competed for Florida State University (FSU) rather than the Gators of UF. UF is also the site of the Jack Bacheler/Frank Shorter running glory days, the novel, “Once A Runner,” and the invention of Gatorade.  

SHORT STUFF you don’t want to miss

>>> Beef up on beef: Adults over 65 showed more muscle protein synthesis after a beef-based meal than an equal-calorie vegan meal.

That’s all for this week. Thanks for reading. See you again next week. Amby

HERE’S WHAT ELSE you would have received this week if you were a subscriber to the complete, full-text “Run Long, Run Healthy.” (Subscription Link Here.)

# Science of running shoes: Should you buy shoes with more cushioning?

# When you don’t need speedwork in your marathon training program

# 3 core exercises you should do EVERY day

# Sure, Olympians run killer interval workouts. But should you?

# How to increase your hemoglobin, and run stronger

# Sodium bicarbonate “boost” might be a placebo effect--not real.

# An inspiring quote from first sub-4-min miler, Roger Bannister

Click here for info about subscribing to the full-text RLRH for just $4/month--20% off!

And remember: “I spend HOURS searching the Internet for the best, most authoritative new running articles, so you can review them in MINUTES.”

That’s all for this week. Thanks for reading. See you again next week. Amby

November 30, 2023

This simple form fix will make you faster and more efficient

I’ve received personal arm-carriage instruction from Golden Harper and Tom Miller, both of whom are referenced in the below article. Both are true running experts and record-holders of different stripes, and both made me a believer in their systems. 

And the best thing about this: There’s nothing to buy. You don’t have to pay a cent. (Although I’ll link to one $12 item.) You just have to practice on your own.

Basically, the system could be called: “Run with your elbows.” Or: “Pull your elbows back.” The article claims that driving your arms backward shifts your balance more upright and forward. In that position, your feet can land closer beneath your body, and push backward more efficiently. 

In fact, coach Andrew Kastor says the one thing he typically yells in a race, where a runner can only hear and implement one simple thing, is: “Elbows Back!”

That’s what I see whenever I watch a video of Eliud Kipchoge heading toward another marathon finish tape. Look at the side view of Kipchoge 20 seconds into this video.

You’ll also enjoy this webpage that promotes a $12 elastic band you can buy to practice Kipchoge elbow running. Click down the page once or twice for an adorable, short video with a young girl runner who’s about 10 years old. (You can fashion a similar device on your own by grabbing a length of elastic resistance band, tying the ends together, and sliding the loop over your shoulders like a coat. Once it’s on, simply tuck your thumbs or whole hands into the front of the loop, and start running. More at Outside Online.

NCAA champ Parker Valby proves the value of cross-training

Many runners cross-train to avoid injury and prolong their healthy running, but few bigtime race winners credit their success to cross-training. Parker Valby from the Univ. of Florida is the rare exception. She was second in last year’s NCAA Cross Country Championships, and first this fall. 

We still don’t have a lot of specific information about Valby’s training, but she apparently covers only 25 to 30 miles a week with on-the-ground running. That’s less than half what many top collegiate runners do. When not running, she’ll log an hour or more per day of cross-training on an elliptical machine named the Arc Trainer (a favorite of many runners) and/or an indoor bike or other equipment.

Here her coach of a year ago describes how fiercely Valby attacks workouts when cross training. And here members of the LetsRun message board debate their views on cross-training for runners.

The linked article below summarizes several studies of cross-training for runners--how it can help you maintain fitness, and maybe even improve. Cross training can be particularly helpful for masters runners, and for young runners battling injury. 

A key issue: When you do hit the roads, trails, or track, you’ve got to devote some hard workouts to race pace preparation. I think it’s a good idea to also include some modest downhill running, because it’s hard to simulate eccentric muscle contractions of the legs on most cross-training machines. More at Trail Runner.

Run for your life with endurance and gratitude

This newsletter, “Run Long, Run Healthy,” exists because I believe the running you did yesterday is wonderful, but the running and other movement you do tomorrow is more important. Yes, you’ll probably be slower tomorrow (next year; next decade), but your personal fitness contributes more to your overall health and well being with increasing age.

To serve this end, I have now run Connecticut’s big annual Turkey Trot, the Manchester Road Race (4.748 miles) 61 years in a row--an unofficial world record for road race streaks. I know this streak won’t continue infinitely, but I can’t see any reason to stop now. 

I won Manchester 9 times in my 20s. That was fun. But the race is more meaningful to me now than it was then. Even though it takes me twice as long to complete the course as it did in the 1970s.

Two women are not far behind me. This year Janet Romayko and Beth Shluger finished Manchester for the 51st year in a row. That appears to be a world-record road race streak for women.

Romayko says: “I will continue running Manchester as long as I can. My aunt walked the course on Thanksgiving at age 93. I’d like to beat her record.” That’s the attitude we need.

Shluger: For 50 years I have had the gift of knowing exactly what I’ll be doing on Thanksgiving morning, and it's a gift of love, family, community and the Manchester Road Race. In this sometimes-crazy world, that is a mighty precious gift.” That’s the gratitude we need to express. More at

SHORT STUFF you don’t want to miss

>>> Stride right: The Stryd foot pod is effective to “delineate exercise intensity domains, guide training intensity, and assess aerobic fitness.”

HERE’S WHAT ELSE you would have received this week if you were a subscriber to the complete, full-text “Run Long, Run Healthy.”

# Do “rocker” shoes help you run faster and farther?

# Unexpected result: High heat makes you slower, but isn’t a big health risk

# Should you try a Heinz ketchup packet instead of an energy gel?

# The training tool that provides the BIGGEST bang for the buck ($0.00)

# Nutrition strategies that tame stomach distress

# Feet first--Footstrike pattern is more important than footwear type for injury prevention

# Success! A new surgery alternative that works great for IT Band Syndrome

# An inspirational quote sure to improve your winter training

Click here for info about subscribing to the full-text RLRH for just $4/month. 

And remember: “I spend HOURS searching the Internet for the best, most authoritative new running articles, so you can review them in MINUTES.”

That’s all for this week. Thanks for reading. See you again next week. Amby

November 16, 2023

Everyone swears by this great half-marathon workout

A training question on Reddit yielded a flurry of eager answers. But that’s not what makes this link interesting.

It’s the fact that most of the respondents largely agreed with each other. Instead of favoring dozens of different workouts, they seemed unified in their approach. That says a lot, I think. A simple key workout is producing good results for a lot of runners. 

Okay, enough beating about the bush. Here’s the question: “What’s your favorite half-marathon workout?” That’s a good one, as the half-marathon is such a popular race distance, and the universal stepping stone to a top marathon.

To assess the full range of responses, you should read the below link. But if you only want my executive summary,  here it is: Run 3 x 2 miles at half-marathon pace with several minutes of recovery walk/jog between the 2-mile repeats.

Why is this workout so successful? Because it’s tough but do-able. It will definitely help you prepare for an upcoming half marathon. It’s also a great one to include in your training arsenal as you get ready for any race distance. More at Reddit Advanced Running.

Save yourself: Modestly hard short sprints are good enough

Speedwork doesn’t have to involve all-out sprinting to be effective and performance-enhancing. In fact, a new study has shown that 10-second sprints at 80% effort improve performance as much as the same sprints at 100%.

This occurred because “training at 80 percent of one's maximum still gets the heart rate up significantly higher than a runner's typical training,” noted the senior author.

In this trial, a group of veteran runners deviated from their normal training for 6 weeks. During that time, they ran 30-20-10 intervals 3 times a week for 15 to 20 minutes per workout. Here’s what this means: The runners ran slow for 30 seconds, then moderate for 20 seconds, then fast for 10 seconds (for a total of 60 seconds). They repeated this routine 5 times (5 minutes), then took a several minute rest period.

After the rest period, they repeated the 5-minute “block” and rest period again. In total, they did 3 to 5 blocks per workout. Roughly half of the subjects ran their 10-second sprints at 80 percent effort; the other half ran 100%. 

“Before” and “After” this training, the 2 groups completed a 5K time trial. Both improved by the same amount, about 3%, though the 80% sprinters actually trended a bit higher than the 100% group.

Conclusion: “Lack of time is a common barrier to regular physical activity, and 30-20-10 training has been identified as a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve performance and health.” Also, non-maximal 30-20-10 training is associated with “a lower perceived effort” than other interval training.” 

Thus, 30-20-10 training is “specifically applicable to people who are not highly motivated or able to do maximal-intensity training.” More at Scandinavian J of Medicine & Science in Sports with free full text. Also, a very complete press release here at Science Daily.

Best running headlamps for dealing with winter darkness

This is not my area of expertise, and I try to avoid running in the dark. But I realize that’s not possible for many, particularly those who have to rise early to train in the winter months. All I really care about is safety on the run. For everybody.

As for product reviews, I trust the runner-tested ones at “I Run Far” more than most. (They do receive an affiliate commission, which they acknowledge.)

The name of the game here is safety--not just being seen by vehicles, but being able to see various road hazards from sticks and stones to patches of ice. One of the top rated headlamps costs just $35, which looks like a great value. Others are pricier, but come with lamps that double as a detachable flashlight. That seems a very hand approach. 

The reviewers note that: “Battery and lighting technology improvements have made headlamps brighter, lighter, and longer lasting.” Good. Also, one of the products they tried is “the Most Ridiculously Bright Running Headlamp We’ve Seen.” Well, there’s a place for everything. 

The “Comments” section includes additional advice from well-informed readers. Stay safe this winter. Be seen. Be able to see the road/trail in front of you. More at I Run Far.

SHORT STUFF you don’t want to miss

>>> Podium pride: Here are the shoes that “won” the New York City Marathon.

HERE’S WHAT ELSE you would have received this week if you were a subscriber to the complete, full-text “Run Long, Run Healthy.”

# Is sodium bicarbonate the next big performance booster?

# You might think you’re getting enough marathon carbs. (But you’re not!)

# Why the “Wim Hof Method” failed a controlled experiment

# A look into the tantalizing link between your low heart rate (from running) and a longer life

# Which is more difficult, the Boston Marathon or New York City?

# How a Harvard physics prof broke the female record for the Trans-America run

# Are marathon shoes faster than track shoes?

# For Thanksgiving Day (the most popular road race day of the year), a great Ralph Waldo Emerson quote about “gratitude” 

Click here for info on subscribing to the full-text RLRH for just $4/month.

And remember: “I spend HOURS searching the Internet for the best, most authoritative new running articles, so you can review them in MINUTES.”

That’s all for this week. Thanks for reading. See you again next week. Amby

November 9, 2023

How to design your perfect training program

Ever since top fitness writer Matt Fitzgerald popularized the research of sports scientist Steven Seiler and others with his 2014 book 80/20 Running, the topic of training intensity distribution (TID) has been one of the hottest, most important in the endurance performance world. We keep learning more, though none of it strays very far from the basic model. In other words, if you don’t want to dive any deeper than 80/20, that’s okay. Just don’t stray too far from that ratio.

On the other hand, if you want more, here’s an important update. A veteran research team investigated what is known about TID in world-class athletes from different endurance sports, and also at different times of the year. They used the simple 3 Zone model--basically easy effort (1), tempo-like easy effort (2), and faster interval-like training (3).

Their findings: First and most important, the principle that Zone 1, easy-effort training predominates is a truism that extends across all endurance sports. Second, cyclists and swimmers can do more hard training than runners, no doubt because their sports don’t involve pounding against gravity. They tended to spend 72% of their training time in Zone 1, and 16% in Zone 2.

Third, most athletes do more hard training during their peak competitive season than during their training-buildup period. Another way of saying this: Training is more pyramidal early in the season, and more polarized later in the season.

Inexperienced athletes often have trouble following the logic of “train slow to get fast.” Here the authors present two nice sentences to explain. The two key concepts to remember: glycogen re-supply, and muscle fibers. 

“One reason for training primarily in Z1 is that glycogen stores can be replenished during sessions of low-intensity endurance exercise performed between more intense workouts. Another reason, although not as well investigated, might be that extensive volumes of low-intensity endurance training are required for additional “aerobic” adaptations in the highly oxidative Type I fibers.”

This free and important paper adds new information to our understanding of TID, but the authors caution strongly against oversimplification. To really figure things out, you need to stick closely to the demands of your own sport, and to the timing of your peak efforts. 

Conclusions: “The analysis presented here does not allow identification of an optimal TID for any individual sport.” Also: “Reliable comparisons between different sports or the phases of a season [are] impossible.” More at Frontiers in Sports & Active Living with free full text.

Only a pin prick away: Use acupuncture and dry needling to resolve injuries

Acupuncture and a physical therapy technique called “dry needling” are both claimed to resolve some running injuries. Of course, it’s hard to rule out a placebo effect after someone has stuck you with needles. 

But many runners also report success from these treatments. In fact, I had a fairly miraculous return to running health earlier this year after just one go-around (with a bit of “Ouch!” involved) of dry needling to my ailing upper leg.

A recent article from Outside Online reports that acupuncture can reduce pain, decrease inflammation, and correct muscle imbalances. Several published journal papers support acupuncture and dry needling for sports injuries. 

One states that “acupuncture can help relieve short-term pain and recovery from dysfunction.” A second systematic review of case studies  “suggests that dry needling is effective in reducing pain associated with lower quarter trigger points in the short-term.” Medical reports have noted only minor risks associated with the two procedures, mostly skin infection if the needles are not clean.

Keep learning, keep improving: Strategies for long term success

However we do it, learning is a key lifelong practice. We all want to run long and healthy. Hence this newsletter. And the only way to do so is to keep learning.

Some of us have been lucky enough to encounter great coaches/mentors in our careers. Alex Hutchinson had a coach who made him take off his watch during interval training, because Alex was checking his splits too obsessively. Link here.

I had a mentor constitutionally averse to spelling out any rules of long distance running. He taught me and his many other disciples by personal example. We ran in his footsteps, and observed that he: started all runs slow, and finished harder; veered off road onto trails at every possible opportunity; ignored the weather to maintain training consistency; and so on. 

Simple stuff. Important stuff. Another term for learning is “acquisition skills.” 

Here several experts in performance “acquisition skills” provide a narrative review of what coaches often do wrong, and what they could do better. In fact, they provide 5 important guidelines from both sides of the coin. It doesn’t take much to turn these into lessons we can adopt for ourselves.

We learn about coaching “myths” that are not backed by solid evidence--like “Demonstrations are always effective,” and feedback should be “frequent, detailed, and provided as soon as possible.”

Other principles of “skill acquisition framework for excellence (SAFE)” may be more helpful. These include: “Find a balance between long-term learning and short-term performance;” and “Facilitate learning rather than dictate or abdicate.”

I appreciate that the authors believe “hands off” instruction may prove more powerful than “hands on.” They also believe in “optimizing challenge.” More at J of Sports Sciences with free full text.

SHORT STUFF you don’t want to miss

>>> Brainy marathoners: New research indicates that marathon runners gain a modest amount of fuel from myelin--a fatty tissue surrounding nerve fibers. 

HERE’S WHAT ELSE you would have received this week if you were a subscriber to the complete, full-text RLRH.

# Every breath you take: Going the distance with nasal breathing

# Experts tell you: “What to look for in your next heart rate monitor”

# Why Boston Marathon runners develop stomach-gut problems

# How whey protein in your recovery drink boosts hydration and endurance

# The truth about the super shoe marathon advantage

# How more exercise is better for those over age 60

# Winning strategies of Olympic 1500-meter champions

# A miraculous combo: motherhood and breast feeding 

# An inspiring “mothers are tough” quote from Kellyn Taylor, first American in the NYC Marathon

Click here for info on subscribing to the full-text RLRH for just $4/month.

And remember: “I spend HOURS searching the Internet for the best, most authoritative new running articles, so you can review them in MINUTES.”

That’s all for this week. Thanks for reading. See you again next week. Amby